Gaea

Gaia

Probably a Giant• 104 that black sheep were sacrificed to her, and that she was invoked by persons taking oaths. And they remembered to be grateful to him for his kindness, and gave him thunder and the glowing thunderbolt and lightening : for before that, huge Gaia had hidden these. First, she lay with her oldest son, , and gave birth to eighteen children. Gaia hands her newborn, Erichthonius, to as Hephaestus watches — an Attic , 470—460 BC Other sources [ ] According to , Earth Gaia , along with Heaven and Sea, were the children of and Day. and Danny Staples, The World of Classical Myth, 1994. : "Ouranos Uranus, Sky was the first to rule over the entire world. " Hyginus, Fabulae 152 : "Tartarus begat by Tartara [Gaia Gaea ], Typhon [Typhoeus], a creature of immense size and fearful shape, who had a hundred Draco Dragon heads springing from his shoulders. By her son, Pontus, Gaia bore the sea-deities , , , , and. United with it was Ananke Inevitability, Compulsion , being of the same nature, or Adrastea, incorporeal, her arms extended throughout the universe and touching its extremities. The third principle after the two was engendered by these--Ge Gaea, Earth and Hydros Water , that is--and was a Serpent Drakon with extra heads growing upon it of a bull and a lion, and a god's countenance in the middle; it had wings upon its shoulders, and its name was Khronos Chronos, Unaging Time and also Herakles. 1] IARBAS Greek Lyric V Anonymous Frag 985 [7. Born spontaneously — either out of Nothingness or out of — brought forth among others , with whom she subsequently mated to give birth to the , themselves parents of most of the. 6 : "[Hera] addressed her deceitful prayers to Allmother Gaia Gaea, Earth , drying out upon the doings of Zeus and the valour of Dionysos, who had destroyed that cloud of numberless earthborn Indians; and when the lifebringing mother heard that the son of Semele had wiped out the Indian nation with speedy fate, she groaned still more thinking of her children. Aldrich Greek mythographer C2nd A. GAEA's reputation grew as a result of the acquisition of some well-known wrestlers, and the organization of some very successful interpromotional shows. After them was born Cronos the wily, youngest and most terrible of her children, and he hated his lusty sire. Beliefs regarding Gaia vary, ranging from the belief that Gaia is the Earth to the belief that she is the spiritual embodiment of the earth or the goddess of the Earth. Then at a nod from his mother, the Earth [Gaia Gaea ], Kilikian Cilician Typhoeus stretched out his hands, and stole the snowy tools of Zeus, the tools of fire. " Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound 206 ff trans. 1] PALAIKHTHON Aeschylus Suppliants 250 [4. Though there were land and sea and air, the land no foot could tread, no creature swim the sea, the air was lightless; nothing kept its form, all objects were at odds, since in one mass cold essence fought with hot, and moist with dry, and hard with soft and light with things of weight. After ten years of fighting Ge prophesied a victory for Zeus if he were to secure the prisoners down in Tartaros as his allies. Greek Lyric III Greek lyric C6th - 5th B. : "Aitna is a mountain in Sikelia Sicily , named after Aitna Etna , daughter of Ouranos Uranus, Heaven and Ge Gaea, Earth , according to Alkimos Alcimus in his work on Sikelia Sicily. : "Some authorities give the parentage of four gods called Aristaios Aristaeus , as Bakkhylides Bacchylides does : one the son of Karystos Carystus [son of Kheiron Chiron ], another the son of Khiron Chiron , another the son of Ge Gaea and Ouranos Uranus , and one the son of Kyrene Cyrene. Pausanias. Media related to at Wikimedia Commons• This can save you a lot of render power whether in a realtime engine or an offline renderer. 1] by Hesiod Theogony 819, Apollodorus 1. Evelyn-White Greek Epic C8th B. 1 Gaea with Cornucopia Greco-Roman Antioch Mosaic C3rd A. Compare with Albanian dhe, Orel,. I think this stands for the third principle, occuping the place of essence, only he [Orpheus] made it bisexual [as Phanes] to symbolize the universal generative cause. On March 15, 2004, a weekly show with matches from GAEA started on. " Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 2. , The Odes of Pindar including the Principal Fragments with an Introduction and an English Translation by Sir John Sandys, Litt. " The Temple of Zeus Olympios in Athens reportedly had an enclosure of Ge Olympia: [Within the sanctuary of Zeus Olympios in the lower town of Athens :] Within the precincts are antiquities : a bronze Zeus, a temple of Kronos Cronus and Rhea and an enclosure of Ge Earth surnamed Olympia. : "From Terra Earth [Gaia] and Tartarus [were born], Gigantes Giants : Enceladus, Coeus, elentes, mophius, Astreaus, Pelorus, Pallas, Emphytus, Rhoecus, ienios, Agrius, alemone, Ephialtes, Eurytus, effracorydon, Theomises, Theodamas, Otus, Typhon, Polybotes, menephriarus, abesus, colophonus, Iapetus. In the ancient Greek cosmology earth was conceived of as a flat disk encirced by the river Okeanos Oceanus , and encompassed above by the solid dome of heaven and below by the great pit or inverse dome of Tartaros. O'Neill Greek comedy C5th to 4th B. You can also use data maps to direct processes or color synthesis. Generate detailed data from synthetic or real terrains. 82 ff : "Before all Khthon Earth [Gaia], milling out from Helios the Sun the shine of his newmade brightness upon her all-mothering breast. 1] , , , , by Hesiod Theog. She herself melted along with his bruised body; and when she saw his legion of high-clambering hands burnt all round, she besought one of the tempestuous winter's blasts to come for one morning, that he might quench Typhon's overpowering thirst by his cool breezes. attacked the mother of the Titanes [Gaia Gaea ] with avenging brand, and shut up the murderers of horned Dionysos within the gate of Tartaros [after a long war]: the trees blazed, the hair of suffering Gaia Earth was scorched with heat. 5] Aeschylus Prometheus Bound 211 [1. Him did vast Gaia Earth receive from Rhea in wide Krete to nourish and to bring up. Then the Almighty Father Pater Omnipotens hurled his bolt and shattered great Olympus and struck down high Pelion piled on Ossa. Britannica does not review the converted text. Evelyn-White Greek epic C8th or C7th B. Day-Lewis Roman epic C1st B. Oxford, Oxford University Press. Gaea is a unique IT consulting firm with big clients, big dreams, and big goals, travelling the globe seeking out the best talent. 2] by a shower of rain Ovid Metamorphoses 4. : "From Aether and Terra Earth [Gaia] [were born various Daimones]. The woman who from time to time is priestess henceforth remains chaste and before her election must not have had intercourse with more than one man. This strife a God Deus [perhaps primordial Eros Procreation or Khronos Chronos, Time ], with nature's blessing, solved; who severed land from sky and sea from land, and from the denser vapours set apart the ethereal sky; and, each from the blind heap resolved and freed, he fastened in its place appropriate in peace and harmony. Due to her mother like presence she presided over marriages, oaths and was honoured as a prophetess. Then he took it in his hands and thrust it down into his belly. Enrolled Agents are equipped to handle the most complex tax returns for individuals, partnerships, corporations and LLCs, and are nationally enrolled to represent taxpayers before all administrative levels of the Internal Revenue Service. Andrew Reeder Concept Artist Avengers: Infinity War, Captain America: Civil War Gaea's color production is the best in the business. For example, you can use the realistic shadow output from the Light node to affect snow melt. According to the mythographer , Gaia and Tartarus were the parents of. " Orphica, Theogonies Fragment 57 from Athenogoras : "Khronos Chronos, Time , , , [also called] Herakles Heracles generated a huge egg, which, being filled full, by the force of its engenderer was broken in two from friction. , Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann, Ltd. Source: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. Her statues were naturally to be found in the temples of Demeter, such as the Temple of Demeter in Achaia: "They [the Patraians of Akhaia Achaea ] have also a grove by the sea, affording in summer weather very agreeable walks and a pleasant means generally of passing the time. Therefore he kept no blind outlook, but watched and swallowed down his children : and unceasing grief seized Rhea. language and advertising, including showing you advertisements which are tailored to the profile created based on your browsing habits. No Titan [Helios the Sun] as yet poured light upon the world, no waxing Phoebe [Selene the Moon] her crescent filled anew, nor in the ambient air yet hung the earth, self-balanced, equipoised, nor Amphitrite's [the Sea's] arms embraced the long far margin of the land. As it tried to squeeze all the matter with greater force, it divided the world into the two hemispheres [Ouranos the Sky and Gaia the Earth]. Contents• with unknown consorts• Pausanias, Graeciae Descriptio 1. 2] as above , as above plus , , by Apollodorus 1. Uranus Though lustful and unrestrained, , the Sky, hated his children; so much so, in fact, that he pushed each of them back into the Earth the womb of their mother at the very moment of birth. Then Kronion Cronion inclined the equally balanced beam of the fight. " Orphica, Theogonies Fragment 54 from Damascius : "Originally there was Hydros Water , he [Orpheus] says, and Mud, from which Ge Gaea, the Earth solidified: he posits these two as first principles, water and earth. She was one of the primoridal elemental deities protogenoi born at the dawn of creation. Gaea can interact with any other software through a simple command line interface CLI , or use bridges to connect to other platforms, like Houdini. But that new stock no less despised the gods and relished cruelty, bloodshed and outrage--born beyond doubt of blood. Now there was an oracle among the gods that they themselves would not be able to destroy any of the Gigantes, but would finish them off only with the help of some mortal ally. Personifications:• Gaea grew outraged at this treatment of her children and encouraged one of the Titans, , to rebel. Strabo, Geography - Greek Geography C1st B. It was at Tokyo's , and was called Memorial First Gong. : "The Curetes, sprung from a sharp shower [of rain]. : "At the beginning there was only Khaos the Chasm [Air], Nyx Night , dark Erebos Darkness , and deep Tartaros the Pit. Her worship appears to have been universal among the Greeks, and she had temples or altars at Athens, Sparta, Delphi, Olympia, Bura, Tegea, Phlyus, and other places. : "The Titanes Titans numbered six men and five women, being born, as certain writers of myths relate, of Ouranos Uranus, Sky and Ge Gaea, Earth , but according to others, of one of the Kouretes Curetes and Titaia Titaea , from whom as their mother they derive the name they have. Many provide tax planning, well before the tax return is to be filed. Some believe that these three were, in fact, all children of the dark primeval void, but, most probably, they belonged to the same — the very first — generation of gods. This did the trick: after ten years, the finally won the war against the the , and became the third ruler of the gods. , Theogony from The Homeric Hymns and Homerica with an English Translation by Hugh G. On April 10, 2005, GAEA closed its doors for good, with a farewell show at the Tokyo Korakuen Hall called Eternal Last Gong. ] encircling the egg serpent-fashion like a wreath or a belt then began to constrict nature. , Odes translated by Diane Arnson Svarlien. " Homeric Hymn XXX to Gaea trans. Oldfather Greek historian C1st B. ]" Pseudo-Hyginus, Preface trans. GAEA SUMMARY THE GODDESS GAEA Parents None emerged at creation Husband Uranus Goddess of The earth Home Earth Symbols Fruit and grain Retinue Panes, Horae, Carpi Other Names Ge, Chthon Roman Name Terra, Tellus GAEA PAGES INDEX• Bind him, bind Bakkhos Bacchus fast, that he may attend in the chamber when I bestow Hebe on Porphyrion as a wife, and give Kythereia Cytherea [Aphrodite] to Khthonios Chthonius , when I sing Brighteyes [Athene] the bedfellow of Enkelados Enceladus , and Artemis of Alkyoneus Alcyoneus. , in: Liddell—Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, in the Perseus Digital Library. 1] Various other Autokhthones earth-born men OFFSPRING HUMAN TRIBES [1. Download Gaea• Her final attempt to dethrone Zeus was by telling him that his next son, birthed to him by Metis would depose him, so he swallowed her causing to spring from his head. : "Gaia Gaea, the Earth produced Aither [Ouranos Uranus , the Sky] dotted with its troop of stars. with• Installation• Pausanias also mention the sanctuary of Ge Gasepton in , and a sanctuary of Ge Kourotrophe Nurse of the Young at Athens. The same safe and trusted content for explorers of all ages. 2] by Other references OFFSPRING RUSTIC GODS [1. Greek Lyric IV Bacchylides, Fragments - Greek Lyric C5th B. So he divided their dignities amongst them. Gaea was described as the giver of dreams and the nourisher of plants and young children• When Ge learned of this, she sought a drug that would prevent their destruction even by mortal hands. 252 remarks that she was represented with a key. Hesiod goes on to say that Gaia brought forth her equal Heaven, Sky to "cover her on every side". And I assume that the theology of the [Orphic] Rhapsodies discarded the two first principles together with the one before the two, that was left unspoken [that is, the Orphics discarded the concepts of Thesis, Khronos Chronos and Ananke], and began from this third principle [Phanes] after the two, because this was the first that was expressible and acceptable to human ears. That Ge belonged to the theoi chthinioi, requires no explanation, and hence she is frequently mentioned where they are invoked. From Khaos Chaos, the Chasm came forth Erebos Erebus, Darkness and black Nyx Night ; but of Nyx Night were born Aither Aether, Light and Hemera Day , whom she conceived and bore from union in love with Erebos. , she was the first being that sprang front Chaos, sand gave birth to Uranus and Pontus. Apollo is the best-known as the oracle power behind Delphi, long established by the time of Homer, having killed Gaia's child there and usurped the power. Cronos undertook the task, and mutilated Uranus. Then the son from his ambush stretched forth his left hand and in his right took the great long sickle with jagged teeth, and swiftly lopped off his own father's members and cast them away to fall behind him. But afterwards she lay with Ouranos Uranus and bare [the Titanes Titans ] deep-swirling Okeanos Oceanus [the earth-encircling river], Koios Coeus and Krios Crius and Hyperion and Iapetos Iapetus , Theia and Rheia, Themis and Mnemosyne and gold-crowned Phoibe Phoebe and lovely Tethys. rebelled against the reigns of all three rulers of the universe , , , but, ultimately, she had to accept her grandson as the supreme king of all gods and men. The event was a sellout and received good press. More commonly held to be child of Phorcys and Ceto• In Athenian vase painting she was shown as a matronly woman only half risen from the earth, often in the act of handing the baby , a future king of Athens, to Athena to foster. Homerica, Homer's Epigrams - Greek Epic C8th - 7th B. : "But when Zeus had driven the Titanes Titans from heaven, huge Gaia Gaea, Earth bare her youngest child Typhoeus of the love of Tartaros the Pit , by the aid of golden Aphrodite [sexual desire]. And they readily heard and obeyed their dear daughter, and told her all that was destined to happen touching Kronos the king and his stout-hearted son. Greek Lyric V Anonymous, Fragments - Greek Lyric B. From underground the thunderbolts belched out smoke, the white cliff was blackened; hidden sparks from a fire-barbed arrow heated the water-springs; torrents boiling with foam and steam poured down the Mygdonian gorge, until it boomed again. Universal Export Gaea provides universal export and format support with 32-bit EXR, OBJ, FBX, and more. We can't resist the power of the story that is begging to be told whether it is to entertain, enlighten, provoke and move. Zeus fought a war against Kronos and the Titanes Titans. he [Typhoeus] leapt up [on hearing the music of Kadmos' Cadmus' pipes] and dragged along his viperish feet; he left in a cave the flaming weapons of Zeus with Mother Gaia Earth to keep them. : "Another tribe of twiform Kentauroi Centaurs. In mosaic art, she appears as a full-figured woman, reclining on the earth, often clothed in green, and sometimes accompanied by troops of Karpoi Carpi, Fruits and Horai Horae, Seasons. [From Caelum-Ouranos and Terra-Gaia? From this point on, GAEA held monthly shows at Korakuen and also occasionally went on the road to other Japanese cities. Greek Papyri III Anonymous, Fragments - Greek Poetry C4th A. Or, you can accept all cookies by clicking on "Accept and continue browsing". When it was burning him he put Mount Etna, which is in Sicily, over him. In his case, naturally, the prisoners were the , left to rot away in. Hesiod, Theogony 819 ff trans. " Pseudo-Hyginus, Preface trans. In Ma-ka transliterated as Ma-ga, "Mother Gaia" also contains the root ga-. Oath sometimes• Also stuns them when punching. As a component of the relationship with WCW two GAEA wrestlers, Akira Hokuto and , became the first and respectively. From there Gaea and Uranus gave birth to the Giants, the Titans, Oceanus and the whole world. Choose a language from the menu above to view a computer-translated version of this page. Indeed, in this theology too [the Hieronyman], this Khronos Time , the serpent has offspring, three in number: moist Aither Light I quote , unbounded Khaos Chaos [Air], and as a third, misty Erebos Erebus, Darkness. You can also integrate it with source control. But when she was about to bear Zeus, the father of gods and men, then she besought her own dear parents, Gaia and starry Ouranos, to devise some plan with her that the birth of her dear child might be concealed, and that retribution might overtake great, crafty Kronos for his own father and also for the children whom he had swallowed down. Next, she bore the three Brontes, Steropes, and Arges , and, finally, the three Cottus, Briareos, and Gyges. The hypothesis proposes that living organisms and inorganic material are part of a that shapes the Earth's , and maintains the Earth as a fit environment for life. For of all the children that were born of Gaia and Ouranos, these were the most terrible, and they were hated by their own father from the first. " Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound 207 trans. : "And Gaia Gaea, Earth first bare starry Ouranos Uranus, Heaven , equal to herself, to cover her on every side, and to be an ever-sure abiding-place for the blessed gods. 3] , Aeschylus Eumenides 1 [1. Apollodorus, The Library - Greek Mythography C2nd A. Chthonic Gaia receives a black animal, heavenly Helios a white one. After that, the strength and glorious limbs of the prince increased quickly, and as the years rolled on, great Kronos the wily was beguiled by the deep suggestions of Gaia, and brought up again his offspring. The Build Stack organizes, analyzes, and even assimilates your source control. Also, Uematsu's WCW Women's Cruiserweight Title was solely defended in GAEA after Uematsu won it in the United States, until the title was abandoned after GAEA and WCW ceased their relationship. But Gaia his mother had thrown off her veil of forests with her hand, and just then was grieving to behold Typhaon's smoking heads. On what is called the Stomion Mouth the altar to Themis has been built. As Ge was the source from which arose the vapours producing divine inspiration, she herself also was regarded as an oracular divinity, and it is well known that the oracle of Delphi was believed to have at first been in her possession Aeschyl. Because both Ge Gaea, Earth and Ouranos Uranus, Heaven had given him prophetic warning that his rule would be overthrown by a son of his own, he took to swallowing his children at birth. He kindled the East: the dawnlands of Baktria Bactria blazed under blazing bolts, the Assyrian waves est afirethe neighbouring Kaspion Caspian Sea and the Indian mountains, the Red Sea rolled billows of flame and warmed Arabian Nereus. You can finetune any part of the terrain and retain total control, whether modifying the shape or parts of the process. Aeschylus, Eumenides - Greek Tragedy C5th B. " Depending on the source, Gaia passed her powers on to , , or. was covered up in Gaia's bosom [that is, trapped in Tartaros], son of Ouranos Uranus, Sky though he was. : "Now because of her anger over the Titanes Titans , Ge Gaea, Earth gave birth to the Gigantes Giants , Ouranos Uranus, Heaven was the father. Nemean dragon• All the land khthon seethed. More commonly held to be child of Gaia alone• Plato, Critias - Greek Philosophy C4th B. This Herakles generated a huge egg [which formed the earth, sea and sky]. In the creation myth, came before everything else. Lesser Giants• 1] by Greek Lyric IV Bacchylides Frag 45 [4. In ancient Greek cosmology, the earth was believed to be a flat disk, encircled by the River and encompassed by the heaven on one side and Tartarus on the other. " Greek Lyric V Anonymous, Fragments 985 from Hippolytus, Refutation of all the Heresies trans. You do not have to be a node expert! " For MORE information on these fertility-spirits see V. : "Gigantes Giants , it's said, to win the gods' domain, mountain on mountain reared and reached the stars. were birn :] Oceanus, Themis, Tartarus, Pontus; and Titanes : Briareus, Gyes, Steropes, Atlas, Hyperion and Polus [Koios Coeus ], Saturnus [Kronos Cronus ], Ops [Rhea], Moneta [Mnemosyne], Dione; and three Furiae Furies [Erinyes], namely Alecto, Megaera, Tisiphone. or Lemnos to Kabeiros Cabirus , fair offspring, in secret rites. Description of Greece,• The life-giving earth crashed around in burning, and the vast wood crackled loud with fire all about. On February 5, 2020, Nagayo announced a one night return for GAEA on April 15, 2020 in Korakuen Hall. [ ] Gaia or Ge had at least three sanctuaries in Greece which were mentioned by. At Patrae she was represented in a sitting attitude, in the temple of Demeter Paus. And he used to hide them all away in a secret place of Gaia so soon as each was born, and would not suffer them to come up into the light: and Ouranos rejoiced in his evil doing. : "Ge Gaea, Earth , say the Greeks, was the first to produce man. Consequently, summoned the best of the rest, the , and commanded them to get rid of. The promotion established a relationship with the Japanese hardcore promotion FMW on July 29, 1995, and worked with the prominent American promotion WCW in 1996. Gaea may have formerly been worshipped in Greece as a mother goddess before the Hellenes introduced the cult of Zeus• 16 Tested Minecraft Versions:• Nor Stars to Phoebus [Helios the Sun]. This will provide a higher level of realism for distant objects in games and matte paintings. The most powerful fighters are always fighting at the forefront of the battlefield in their Power Armor. From Uranus' spilled blood, Gaia produced the , the , and the ash-tree nymphs. I can truly say that the time I spend in Gaea has become my favourite part of the process. Ovid, Fasti - Latin Poetry C1st B. Its crown became Ouranos Heaven , and what had sunk downwards, Gaia Gaea, Earth. It continues because the passion remains unchanged. As its name suggests, all members of the brotherhood are decked out, head to toe, in steel. Family [ ] Olympian descendants [ ] Olympians' family tree Gaia Uranus' genitals a b a b Children [ ] See also: Gaia is the personification of the Earth, and these are her offspring as related in various myths. , Early Greek Myth: A Guide to Literary and Artistic Sources, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996, Two volumes: Vol. Some writers of myths relate that these gods were born of Gaia Gaea, the Earth. Maybe they've become stories themselves. , in the Online Etymology Dictionary. Hyginus Pref NB text is corrupt [2. From the light entertainment series to the author driven cinematic opus. ] Temples [ ] Gaia is believed by some sources to be the original deity behind the at. , in: , A Greek-English Lexicon, in the Perseus Digital Library. Close to the sanctuary of Eileithyia in Tegea was an altar of Ge; Phlya and Myrrhinos had an altar to Ge under the name Thea Megale Great goddess ;, as well as Olympia which additionally, similar to Delphi, also said to have had an oracle to Gaia: On what is called the Gaion Gaeum, Sanctuary of Ge [at Olympia] is an altar of Ge Earth ; it too is of ashes. : "From Pontus Sea and Terra Earth [Gaia] [were born] : Thaumas, tusciuersus, cepheus. , The ancients barely distinguished between the War of the Titanes Titans and the War of the Gigantes Giants. From this it is said to burn still. He threw the Cyclopes into the underworld for their disobedience and hid the Titans in Gaea that is, in Earth immediately upon their birth. He challenged Jove [Zeus] to see if Jove would content with him for the rule. Greek Lyric IV Greek lyric C5th B. Then Zeus clamed his wrath at the sight of the scorched earth; he pitied her, and wished to wash with water the ashes of ruin and the fiery wounds of the land. Anyway, these survivors have succeeded over the vast Wasteland. In it the poet states that the oracle belonged to Poseidon and Earth in common; that Earth gave her oracles herself, but Poseidon used Pyrcon as his mouthpiece in giving responses. Uranus and Gaea produced many children, including the and the. Aeschylus, Seven Against Thebes - Greek Tragedy C5th B. Cronus: the Titanomachy After a brief period of harmony and bliss, started ruling the world the same way his father had ruled it before him: brutally and autocratically. Description of Greece,• Homer, The Odyssey - Greek Epic C8th B. Or wound him with cutting steel and kill him for me like Zagreus, that one may say, god or mortal, that Gaia in her anger has twice armed her slayers against the breed of Kronides--the older Titanes against the former Dionysos [Zagreus], the younger Gigantes against Dionysos later born. Other versions show Gaea was the great mother of all creation; the heavenly gods were descended from her union with Uranus the Sky , the sea-gods from her union with Pontos the Sea , the Giants from her mating with Tartarus the Pit and mortal creatures born from her earthly flesh. Beekes, Etymological Dictionary of Greek, Brill, 2009, pp.。

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